X-ray machine

An X-ray machine is medical equipment that uses X-radiation to create images of the internal tissues/organs of the body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It consists mainly of two parts: an X-ray generator and an X-ray detector.

An X-ray generator is the device in an X-ray machine that produces X-rays. It generally contains an X-ray tube, which, in most cases, uses radioisotopes to generate X-rays. An X-ray tube has an electrode pair, a cathode (that directs a stream of electrons into a vacuum) and an anode (made of tungsten to evacuate heat generated by the collision, while collecting the electrons). The electrons collide with the target, and the resulting energy is emitted as heat (99%) and X-rays (only 1%). Thereby, an X-ray generator needs to have a cooling system.

An X-ray detector is a device used to measure the spectrum, spatial distribution, flux and other properties of X-rays. To generate an image, the patient is placed between the X-ray generator and the X-ray detector. X-rays are attenuated by dense tissues and pass more easily through soft tissues. Traditionally, a photographic film was used to produce the X-ray image. Today digital X-ray sensors are used to produce the final image, which results in time efficiency, use of less radiation, the images can be digitally transferred and can also be enhanced.